What is the Normal 24-Hour Urine Volume2012-11-24 14:11
Generally speaking, the normal 24-hour urine volume for adults is 1000-1500ml and children have great individual differences. The ratio between day urine and night urine is about 2-4:1.
The urine volume mainly depends on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal tubular functions of re-absorption and dilution. Besides, there are many factors that can affect urine volume such as water intake, foods, environment (temperature, humidity), sweating, age, mood and activities, etc.
What is the clinical significance of changes in urine output?
1. Diuresis. If 24-hour urine output is more than 2500ml, it is called diuresis in clinic. Of cause this does not definitely mean diseases or problems. Too much intake of water, strong tea, coffee can increase urine volume. Besides, mental stress, insomnia, the use of diuretics or excessive venous infusion can all cause more than normal urine output. Pathological diuresis is mainly due to dysfunction of renal tubular re-absorption and concentration. The common kidney diseases that can cause diuresis are chronic nephritis, renal insufficiency, chronic pyelonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, renal medulla fibrosis or atrophy. It is characterized by disordered proportion of day and night urination and increase night urination.
2. Oliguria. 24-hour urine volume less than 400ml or persistent urine output less than 17ml/hour is called oliguria. Dehydration or too much sweating can cause physiological oliguria. Pathological oliguria can be caused by pre-renal, renal and post-renal reasons. Renal causes include acute glomerulonephritis, chronic renal failure and acute rejections after the surgery of kidney transplant.
3. Anuria. In case of anuria, 24-hour urine volume is less than 100ml or there is no urine output within 12 hours. It has the same causes with that of oliguria.
For end stage renal failure patients and those that are taking dialysis, urine is hope and it means that there are still workable nephrons and remaining kidney functions and also it means that there is still chance to improve their kidney functions with timely and effective treatments.
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