Blood purification is a method that help to clear harmful substances away from blood through a purification devices outside the body. For an individual with kidney problem, because of impaired kidney function, toxic substances pile up in the blood quickly, leading to the condition that severely affects survival. Under such a condition, by means of blood purification therapy, sufferer's condition can be significantly improved.
At present, there are several blood purification techniques around the world and they are Hemodialysis (HD), Hemofiltration (HF), Hemodiafiltration, Immune Adsorption, Plasma Exchange, Hemoperfusion, Bed side (portable), Continuous Hemofiltration (CHF) and Hemadsorption. Each modality has different removal capacities and limitations; therefore, it is necessary to thoroughly evaluate the time and the duration of use in the case of different disease conditions.Back top
Hemodialysis, which also can be called dialysis, is the most commonly seen method that used to achieve the extracorporeal removal of waste products such as creatinine, water, and urea when kidneys shut down. According to clinical studies, Hemodialysis is more effective in removing substances with small molecules, so actually it is far from enough for kidney failure patients to purify their blood simply with hemodialysis.
Hemodialysis, as the most commonly used method for kidney failure patients, achieves the treatment purpose with the help of a semipermeable and it can be an outpatient therapy, or inpatient therapy. But most of the time, due to the easy occurrence of unexpected events, it usually is done in a hospital or a dedicated, stand alone clinic.Back top
Hemofiltration is more likely to used for Acute Renal Failure. It is a slow continuous therapy in which sessions usually last between 12 to 24 hours. Hemofiltration, differs from Hemodialysis which clean blood through convection and transmembrane pressure, achieves the purpose of cleaning blood by means of dispersion principle. Compared with Hemodialysis, Hemofiltration is more effective in clearing middle molecular substances and macromolecular substances.
In hemofiltration, blood pass through a tube via a machine to a semipermeable membrane which works as a filter. While blood flow into this machine, water and waste products are removed and then blood is purified. During this period, replacement fluid is added and they finally flow into patient's body with blood.Back top
Hemodiafiltration integrates the merits of hemodialysis and hemofiltration; therefore, treatment effects of hemodiafiltration are better than that of the above two blood purification therapies. Even so, hemodiafiltration is not a perfect blood purification technology as it may cause great loose of protein, soluble vitamin, trace elements and so on.Back top
Immune absorption is a new blood purification technology in recent years with high selectivity. Making full use of high specific antigen-antibody response or some materials which has appetency, put the absorption agent onto the absorption column, so as to absorb the pathological substance(ligand), thus purifying blood and relieving symptoms and discomfort. At present, Immune adsorption mainly focuses on removing low density lipoprotein and autoantibody, so it is more commonly used among kidney diseases like Crescentic Glomerulonephritis, IgA Nephropathy and Purpura Nephritis and so on.Back top
Plasma exchange is a blood purification procedure used to treat several autoimmune diseases. It focuses on removing antibodies from the bloodstream, thereby preventing them from attacking their targets. Plasma exchange can be used to treat many diseases like poisoning with different causes, autoimmune diseases, blood diseases, nervous system diseases, hepatic failure and family hypercholesterolemia and so on. In case of various kidney diseases, plasma exchange is particularly effective in treating Lupus Nephritis.
In plasma exchange, blood is induced to a machine which could separate plasma with high concentration of toxins. These plasma which are high harmful substances are abandon and then to meet physical demand, new and healthy plasma will be added into patient's body. Plasma exchange can clear toxins in the blood, but fail to prevent the generation of them. Thereby, it can not be used alone as the treatment of immune-related order. In clinical, plasma exchange is alway used together with immunosuppressive agent, so as to achieve a better treatment effects.--Back top
Hemoperfusion, also can be called blood perfusion, is a medical process used to remove toxic substances from a patient's blood.
Hemoperfusion shows great treatment effects in clearing serum creatinine, uric acid, middle molecular substances, phenols, organic acid and many other medicines, but fail to remove urea nitrogen, phosphate, water and electrolyte. Therefore, in case of end stage renal failure, Hemoperfusion usually is used together with Hemodialysis.
Different kinds of blood purification technology shows different treatment effects in treating kidney disease, therefore, having a through knowledge about own illness condition and each kind of blood purification technology before making a decision is of great importance for receiving visible treatment effects. Also, in critically ill patients with composite conditions, the use of more than two blood purification techniques at the same time or at different times during the course of the disease can improve patient prognosis more than the use of single methods.
Blood purification technology plays significant role in treating kidney disease, but it only presents temporary treatment effects, as toxins in the blood pile up day by day due to failed kidneys. Therefore, it is far from enough for kidney disease sufferers to receive radical recovery simply with blood purification technologies.Back top
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