Dialysis is always regarded as the only supportive measure in those for whom kidney transplant would be inappropriate. Kidneys have great functions in excreting metabolin produced by our body, keeping balance of electrolyte and acid-base as well as generating urine. Kidney failure makes kidney disable in working, as a consequence of this, various toxins pile up in the blood and therefore thread sufferer's life. Dialysis is used to provide an artificial replacement for kidney failure patients, and by which, these toxins in blood can be cleared away to a large extend.
Therefore, dialysis is of special meaning for kidney failure patients to maintain their life.
Dialysis can be medically divided into tree types: hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and colon dialysis.Back top
Hemodialysis is the most commonly seen dialysis among kidney failure patients, and in our daily life it also can be generally called dialysis. Hemodialysis is one of the types of blood purification which focuses on cleaning blood outside the body by means of purification equipments. Aside from excreting excessive water and toxins out of the body, hemodialysis also shows treatment effects in remitting electrolyte disturbance and acidosis.
Adoption diseases of hemodialysis:
1. Acute Renal Failure
2. Chronic Kidney Failure
3. Acute drug poisoning and food poisoning.
4. Hepatic failure
Contraindication of hemodialysis:
1. People with extremely serious condition, low blood pressure or shock.
2. People who are affected with serious ichorrhemia
3. Coronary heart disease sufferer or myocardial insufficiency patients
4. People who receive serious surgery within 3 days
5. People with serious bleeding condition or anemia
6. People with mental disorder or malignant tumor.
7. Air embolism
If the dialysis machine has perfect monitoring measures, air embolism won't happen.
8. Cerebral hemorrhage
Cerebral hemorrhage caused by hypertension and anti-freezing is one of factors that lead to maintenance hemodialysis patients'death.
9. Subdural hematoma
The clinical manifestations of subdural hematoma are similar to dialysis disequilibrium syndrome.
Many kidney failure patients preparing for dialysis care much about whether they can stop dialysis once start it. Actually, they can on the precondition that their kidney function is recovered to the level that powerful enough to maintain their life. Kidney failure patients do dialysis because kidneys fail to working, so as long as their kidney function is recovered with effective treatment, they can get rid of dialysis immediately.
Without effective treatment, many kidney failure patients have to undergo dialysis for a long time and even for the rest of their life. Long-term dialysis cause serious complications, so finding a natural alternative treatment is beneficial for kidney failure patients.Back top
peritoneal dialysis works on the basis of peritoneum which is a semipermeable membrane. Through inducing a sterile solution containing glucose into the peritoneal cavity with a tube, there is concentration gradient of solute. Under such a circumstance, solute in side with high concentration flow to the another side and meanwhile, water and excessive electrolytes in side with low concentration flow to the side with high concentration. In this way, toxins the metabolin in blood can be cleared little by little and electrolyte disturbance finally can be corrected.
Compared with hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis isconvenient, but more risky as it causes infection, great loose of protein and obvious increase of triglyceride more easily. In clinical, these people are usually suggested to have peritoneal dialysis.
1. Elderly people
2. People with poor cardiovascular function
3. Diabetic Nephropathy patients
Contraindication of hemodialysis:
1. People who did abdominal operation 3 days before
2. People with intestinal obstruction, peritoneal adhesion or peritoneal infection
3. People with retroperitoneal tumor, intestinal fistula or diaphragmatic herniaBack top
Colon dialysis, also can be called intestinal dialysis, is relatively new technology used as a treatment for kidney failure. Similar with other blood purification technologies, colon dialysis also helps to remove serum creatinine, urea nitrogen and uric acid and so on.
Even though dialysis plays significant role for kidney failure patients, it is an imperfect treatment to replace kidney function because it does not correct the endocrine functions of kidney. What is worse, it causes serious complications.Back top
1. Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome
It commonly appears in the patient who has a high level of urea nitrogen and creatinine or has obvious symptoms of kidney failure, and especially in the first dialysis and dialysis induced phase. The symptoms of dialysis disequilibrium syndrome include headache, weakness, ennui, nausea and sleep-disorder. Morbidity of Disequilibrium Syndrome among dialysis patients is 3.4% to 20%.
Hypotension is the most common complication of dialysis with incidence rate 20% to 40%. The symptoms of hypotension are dizziness, sweat, amaurosis, muscle spasm, etc.
Hyoxemia usually appears in acetate dialysis. The patient having cardiopulmonary diseases or elderly people may suffer from hyoxemia.
Hypokalemia with high morbidity 50% is caused by repeated use of low potassium dialysis fluid may cause arrhythmia.
5. Pericardial tamponade
Most of pericardial tamponade is hemorrhagic in the dialysis or in a short time after the dialysis.
The clinical manifestations of pericardial tamponade are: blood pressure progressive decline, venous engorgement, heart world expansion and pericardial effusion.
Hemolysis is usually caused by dialysate disorders and dialysis machine failure.Back top
Plasma exchange is a blood purification procedure used to treat several autoimmune diseases. It focuses on removing antibodies from the bloodstream, thereby preventing them from attacking their targets. Plasma exchange can be used to treat many diseases like poisoning with different causes, autoimmune diseases, blood diseases, nervous system diseases, hepatic failure and family hypercholesterolemia and so on. In case of various kidney diseases, plasma exchange is particularly effective in treating Lupus Nephritis.
In plasma exchange, blood is induced to a machine which could separate plasma with high concentration of toxins. These plasma which are high harmful substances are abandon and then to meet physical demand, new and healthy plasma will be added into patient's body. Plasma exchange can clear toxins in the blood, but fail to prevent the generation of them. Thereby, it can not be used alone as the treatment of immune-related order. In clinical, plasma exchange is alway used together with immunosuppressive agent, so as to achieve a better treatment effects.--Back top
Hemoperfusion, also can be called blood perfusion, is a medical process used to remove toxic substances from a patient's blood.
Hemoperfusion shows great treatment effects in clearing serum creatinine, uric acid, middle molecular substances, phenols, organic acid and many other medicines, but fail to remove urea nitrogen, phosphate, water and electrolyte. Therefore, in case of end stage renal failure, Hemoperfusion usually is used together with Hemodialysis.
Different kinds of blood purification technology shows different treatment effects in treating kidney disease, therefore, having a through knowledge about own illness condition and each kind of blood purification technology before making a decision is of great importance for receiving visible treatment effects. Also, in critically ill patients with composite conditions, the use of more than two blood purification techniques at the same time or at different times during the course of the disease can improve patient prognosis more than the use of single methods.
Blood purification technology plays significant role in treating kidney disease, but it only presents temporary treatment effects, as toxins in the blood pile up day by day due to failed kidneys. Therefore, it is far from enough for kidney disease sufferers to receive radical recovery simply with blood purification technologies.Back top
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