End Stage Renal Disease refers to the end result of various kidney problem and it also can be called Kidney Failure. With ESRD, kidneys stop working well enough for us to live without dialysis or kidney transplant. Therefore, preventing ESRD is the ultimate goal for people with any kind of kidney problem.Back top
You may not know that you have a kidney problem until it develops to a certain stage. In early stage kidney disease, there is no visible symptoms, so the only way to know how your kidneys are working is to have some medical tests.
1. Blood pressure check
2. Routine urine test
3. Routine blood test
4. Kidney function test
These tests help to know how well your kidneys function and if you want to know more about your kidney condition, special tests will be needed.Back top
Since ESRD is the common consequence of different kind of kidney problem, it can be caused by many diseases like Diabetic Nephropathy, Polycystic Kidney Disease, Hypertensive Nephropathy, Kidney cyst and so on. Aside from these, many unhealthy lifestyle or living habits like abuse of nephrotoxic medicines and repeating kidney infection or cold also give rise of ESRD .Back top
Symptoms of ESRD include frequent urination at night, swelling in leg, eyes and face, elevated blood pressure, foamy urine, changed urine color, back pain, itchy skin, tiredness, poor appetite, poor concentration, nausea, vomiting, reduced urine and so on.Back top
On the basis of GFR, chronic kidney disease can be divided into 5 stages.
1. Timely medical treatment
ESRD refers to advanced kidney problem, so people with kidney problem in early stage can prevent ESRD by stopping progression of kidney disease. Medical treatment is the key point to avoid further kidney damages.
2. Scientific diet
Many kidney disease patients make little of diet. Actually, diet is an essential factor for slowing down the development of kidney disease. Reasonable diet reduce the production of wastes, which helps to avoid extra renal burden. When kidneys are damaged, they fail to bear heavy burden and in such a condition, it is necessary for us to adjust our diet to protect the residual renal tissues, so as to avoid worsening kidney disease.
3. Healthy living habits
Some people may think it is not necessary to change their lifestyle once being diagnosed with kidney disease, as they believe kidney disease can not be caused by irregular life. Actually, unhealthy lifestyle indeed cause kidney problem. We human being live normal life without being affected by various bacterium and virus just because of our strong immune system. Irregular life and unhealthy living habits like smoking and drinking alcohol damage our immune system, impair our immunity, which can lead to kidney related problem directly. Therefore, if any kidney disease patient has developed unhealthy living habits, kicking them as soon as possible is necessary.
According to clinical investigation, people with Diabetes and Hypertension are at high risk of developing ESRD. To avoid ESRD, they need to kept blood pressure and blood sugar under control and also, regular physical examination is necessary.Back top
ESRD makes kidney fail to discharge wastes, reserve nutrition, keep balance of electrolyte and , they need to follow some dietary principles.
General dietary principles for ESRD patients go as follow:
1. Low-sodium diet: the reason for ESRD patients to follow low-sodium is that damaged kidney is not able to as effectively remove fluids as before and excesses of this mineral can lead to additional fluids retention as well as elevation in blood pressure. Salt is high in sodium, so limiting salt intake is necessary.
2. Low-phosphorus diet: Excessive phosphorus restrain absorption to calcium, and therefore cause bone disease. Therefore, following low-phosphorus diet is necessary. Foods that are high in phosphorus include bran, pumpkin, sunflower seeds, toasted wheat germ, cheese, nuts, Flax seeds, Roasted Soybeans and bacon and so on.
3. Low-potassium: Excessive potassium s known to trigger irregular heart rhythms in some people, which can be dangerous. Foods with high potassium include banana, avocados, chocolate, coco powder, dates, panrika and so on.
4. Limit fluid intake if ESRD patients have serious welling.
5. Eat more fruits, vegetables and whole grains to replenish vitamin, minerals, fiber and other nutrients essential to good health.
6.Low protein diet is necessary if ESRD patient have not started or has stopped dialysis.Back top
Kidneys mainly filter blood, during which wastes are discharged and nutrition is kept in body. With ESRD, kidney fail to work, so treatment firstly should be effective in replacing kidneys to work. In recent years, with the rapid development of medical technology, more and more therapies are created to repair kidney damages and compared with conventional treatments for ESRD, these new treatments show great advantageous in clinical.
Conventional Treatment for ESRD:
New treatments for ESRD:
As kidney also helps to control blood pressure, secrete hormones and keep the balance of uric-acid and electrolyte, while receiving medical treatment, adjusting diet is also necessary.Back top
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